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So now, we’re going to move on to the medial
compartment of the leg. The medial compartment consists of six different muscles. We’ll take
a look at those now. I’ll just get rid of the sartorius and we
can look at the medial compartment muscles. These muscles originate in this area of the
pelvis. The body of the pubis, the ischiopubic ramus, this sort of area is where the muscles
of the medial compartment originate. These muscles are mainly innervated by the obturator
nerve. There’s two muscles that are innervated by
separate nerves. You’ve got the pectineus muscle, which is this muscle here. That’s
innervated by the femoral nerve and you’ve got the hamstring parts of the adductor longus
muscle, which is innervated by the sciatic nerve (the tibial branch of the sciatic nerve).
Apart from that, they’re all innervated by the obturator nerve. So these muscles, these group of muscles mainly
adduct the femur at the hip joint. So I’ll the first muscle I’ll talk about is this muscle,
which is most medial and it runs vertically down the medial aspect of the thigh. So this
muscle is called the gracilis muscle. You can see its course down the inside of the
leg from the body of the pubis inserting onto the medial surface of the proximal tibia.
So it inserts just behind the insertion point of the sartorius. This muscle adducts the
thigh and it flexes the knee. So next, we’ve got the pectineus muscle. You
can see this muscle here. It’s rectangular in shape. It’s innervated by the femoral nerve
rather than the obturator nerve. I’ve just isolated it here and you can see it originating
here on the pectineal line and inserting onto the femur. So what this muscle does, it adducts
and flexes the thigh at the hip joint. That’s the pectineus muscle. And then we’ve got a group of muscles called
the adductor muscles. You’ve got the adductor longus, the adductor brevis and the adductor
magnus. This is the most superficial of the adductor muscles and this is called the adductor
longus. This muscle adducts and medially rotates the thigh. The medial border of this muscle
forms the medial border of the femoral triangle. So I’ve just brought back the sartorius muscle
just to explain the femoral triangle. The femoral triangle is this area on the upper
thigh. The superior border is the inguinal ligament which runs from the anterior superior
iliac spine down to the pubic tubercle. That’s the superior border. Then you’ve got the lateral border formed
by the medial border of the sartorius muscle, this margin here. And then like I’ve just
mentioned, you’ve got the medial border of the adductor longus muscle, which forms the
medial border of the femoral triangle. So the femoral triangle is this region here. So the adductor longus and the pectineus muscle
adjacent to it form the medial part of the floor of the femoral triangle. And then you’ve
got the lateral part formed by the terminal ends of the iliopsoas muscle. So that’s just
a quick bit about the femoral triangle. We’ll just take a look at the adductor longus
muscle. You can see its origin on the femur and the middle third of the femur. I’m just going to dissect away some of these
muscles. You’ve got the pectineus here. You’ve got the adductor longus, which I’ve just shown
you. I’m just going to remove that muscle, so you can see what’s beneath. You’ve got this smaller muscle, which inserts
on the femur a little higher up in the upper third of the femur. This is called the adductor
brevis. Remember ‘brevis’ means short in Latin, so it’s a shorter muscle. The adductor longus
inserts further down here. So this muscle, the adductor brevis muscle lies behind the
pectineus and the adductor longus muscle. This muscle adducts the thigh. Most deep, we’ve got this huge muscle underneath.
I’ll just get rid of the adductor brevis and we can see this big muscle here. This is called
the adductor magnus muscle. ‘Magnus’ means big or great in Latin, so it’s the biggest
adductor muscle and it’s got two parts. It’s got a hamstring part, which is this part
here, which runs up vertically. You’ve got the adductor part, which is this part here.
I’ve just isolated it to give you a good view. So you’ve got the hamstring part, which runs
vertically up and you’ve got the adductor part, which is this part here. So the hamstring part of the adductor magnus
is innervated by the tibial branch of the femoral nerve rather than the obturator nerve.
So this part, the adductor part is actually innervated by the obturator nerve and they’ve
got two different origins. So the hamstring part essentially descends
vertically and it originates on the ischial tuberosity, whereas the adductor part originates
on the ischiopubic ramus. So this muscle adducts and medially rotates the thigh. So finally, we’ve got the obturator externus
muscle. You can see this muscle here. It sits on the lateral surface of the obturator membrane
and it winds around behind the hip joint to insert into an oval depression in the trochanteric
fossa. I just isolated it again here. You can see
it sitting on the obturator membrane over the obturator foramen and it winds around
behind the hip joint and it inserts into this little depression here, the trochanteric fossa.
This muscle externally rotates the thigh. So if you remember the obturator internus
muscle, it sits on the medial surface of the obturator membrane. So you can see that there
and its 90° bend around. You can see the obturator externus and internus. So again, the obturator externus is innervated
by the obturator nerve. So just bringing back the muscles of the medial compartment, you’ve
got two muscles, which aren’t innervated by the obturator nerve in the medial compartment.
You’ve got the pectineus muscle, which is this rectangular muscle here innervated by
the femoral nerve and you’ve got the hamstring part of the adductor longus muscle, which
is innervated by the tibial branch of the sciatic nerve. But apart from that, the rest
are innervated by the obturator nerve. Okay! So the final compartment of the thigh
is the posterior compartment. The posterior compartment is very simple because then you’ve
got three muscles there. I’ll just remove the gluteus maximum to get a good look at
this compartment. The muscles in this compartment are innervated
by branches of the sciatic nerve. These muscles, apart from the short head of the biceps femoris
muscle, these originate, all originate on the ischial tuberosity. They run down to insert
on the tibia. They extend the hip joint and flex at the knee joint. So you’ve got three muscles. You’ve got this
muscle here, which sits laterally. This is the biceps femoris muscle. It has two heads.
You’ve got a long head, which originates on the ischial tuberosity and you’ve got a short
head, which originates on the femur. It inserts onto the head of the fibula. And then medially, you’ve got the semimembranosus
muscle and the semitendinosus muscle. So a way of remembering it is semimembranosus has
an m in it, so m for media. Semimembranosus and semitendinosus both have a semi- in it,
so they both go together. They’re both medial. Because semimembranosus is medial, so semitendinosus
is medial. And then because semitendinosus has a t in it, so semitendinosus sits on ‘top’. So biceps femoris laterally and then you’ve
got semimembranosus and semitendinosus medially with semitendinosus sitting on the top. So I’ve just isolated these muscles and you
can see the origin of these muscles on the ischial tuberosity. And then you can see the
short head of the biceps femoris muscle originating on the femur. So the long head and the short
head converge into this common tendon and then inserts onto the head of the fibula. So the biceps femoris muscle extends at the
hip joint and flexes at the knee joint. The semitendinosus is the one that sits on the
top and it’s medial to the biceps femoris muscle and it runs down and inserts on the
medial surface of the proximal tibia. So it inserts just behind the gracilis muscle. So if I just bring the other muscles back
in, you can see the gracilis here running down and it inserts just behind the sartorius
muscle, but just in front of the point where the semitendinosus muscle inserts. So the semitendinosus muscle, again, it flexes
the knee and it extends at the hip. So the semimembranosus muscle has the same action,
extending at the hip and flexing at the knee joint. It works together with the semitendinosus
muscle. Let’s just have a look at the insertion point. It actually inserts behind on the medial
condyle of the femur and it also inserts posteriorly on the medial condyle of the tibia. And also,
some of the fibers from the tendon blend with the fascia which covers the knee joint. So all these muscles of the posterior compartment
or the three muscles of the posterior compartment are innervated by the sciatic nerve, so the
main function of these muscles is to extend at the hip and flex at the knee. So that’s the muscles of the gluteal region
and of the thigh. It’s probably quite long, but if you want to learn a bit more in detail
about the various muscle actions and the points of origin and insertion, then take a look
at my individual tutorials where I cover it in a bit more detail. Sorry if this was a
bit more rushed, but feel free to rewind, re-watch, whatever and take a look at my other
tutorials.

89 thoughts on “Muscles of the Thigh and Gluteal Region – Part 2 – Anatomy Tutorial

  1. you made a mistake i think the first time you said the hamstring part of adductor magnus is innervated by the tibial branch of femoral nerve, when actually it is the branch of sciatic nerve 🙂

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  4. Awesome video!! I am currently a nursing student and this is helping me very much. We have to learn all the bones and muscle……and in a hurry. I am so glad you made this available not only I'm I learning there position-I am getting the proper way to pronounce them! Thanks again, please keep'um coming!

  5. Thank you very much for the video and the explanation. Can you please tell me what is the name of the Anatomy software that you are using?

  6. man,,, seriously
    you are amazing !!! THANK YOU THANK YOU !!!
    THIS IS REALLY HELPFUL !!!
    BIG THANKS !!! I DON'T KNOW WHAT TO SAY
    but this is really helps me !!!

  7. Only thing is the short head of the biceps femoris in the posterior compartment is innervated by the fibular branch of the sciatic nerve, not the tibial branch like the rest of the posterior compartment. 

  8. These are very, very helpful and thank you for posting them. As a therapist, it pays to regularly revise these muscles and Anatomy in general. The 3D effect and the way you can remove layers of muscles and then add them is very helpful. Thank you for your efforts and please continue this great work.

  9. Thank you so much for these great tutorials! It have been struggling to wrap my brain around these muscles for months and your explanations and tips for remembering are truly wonderful!!! Thank you!

  10. at 56 seconds, i believe you made a mistake, the adductor longs is intrervated by the orbturator nerve only; its the adductor magnus that is also intervated by the sciatic nerve towards the posterior end. 

  11. excellent job done by anatomy zone,,, i think explaining and dissection anatomy were never been this much comprehensive and easy to understand than ever,,, 

  12. Thanks for this; it is a great tutorial which allows good visualization and is very well explained. The only mistake is the comment noted below about Adductor Magnus hamstring portion innervation but that has now been corrected thanks! Only a small mistake though; it's still a very helpful video. Thanks!

  13. in the introduction  as well as  at the climax of medial compartment part of thigh   Sir u accidentally said ''hamstring part of the longus muscle innervates by tibial branch of sciatic nerve '' however  in the demonstration part Sir u said exactly(i don;t know) that ''hamstring part of the magnus innervates by tibial sciatic nerve''…which one should i believe ?some1 plz help me……

  14. what's the mostly white large tissue that looks like it's between the groin and hamstring (just inside of the semitendinosus)?

  15. Not certain about the points made but ,if anyone else wants to discover stiff hips and lower back try Trefendous Pain Relief Tips (do a google search ) ? Ive heard some amazing things about it and my buddy got cool success with it.

  16. thnx very much! I just want to hint out , that like you said all of the muscles of the adductor group are innervated by the obturartor nerve with two exceptions: Pectineus from the femoral nerve and the hamstering part of the (M.adductor MAGNUS) and not longus… from the the tibial part of the Nevus ischiadicus.

  17. Thank YOU sooo much!!! I want you to know that what you do is very valuable. 2D pictures on books give me a head ache. Thanks for all this effort!

  18. I love the live nature of your lectures – the little mistakes make me have to think rather than just passively listen. A great resource. My final osteopathy exam is today! Have been watching your videos for four years now so I ought to have some idea of what I'm talking about. thanks Peter.

  19. I'm not in the medical field however I experienced rear collision accident that upon on impact my body from waist down to feet experienced tremors…. when i went to get out of my vehicle it felt like my vagina was in active labor like all the pain contractions…maybe a week later it became more noticeable I was experiencing some kind of vaginal spasms literally in the vagina area these would last seconds and happen Any given time also not being able to hold urine along with Some kind of muscle weakness in my inner upper thigh that leads to the pelvic/vaginal area and muscle weakness on the frontal area (lap area) of both legs more the right leg. The physical therapist said it's called pelvic floor dysfunction when the muscles experienced trama/ during impact tightened up and never released causing the spasms and weakness I've been in different therapies for over a year sometimes i think im getting better only to keep experiencing continuos constant random weakness and spasms to the point if I'm not careful I literall risk falling there's no warning it just happens Anytime! When I'm walking I give out at the hips inner thighs that weakness isn't visable to just look at me one wouldn't see it unless you Just Happen to be there and/or looking at me while I'm walking talking if im getting up to get something etc then you see my hips give out! like if you hit the back of someone's knees and they kinda collaspnut they ate able to regain balance! this happens when I'm stepping into shower cooking shopping cleaning etc and if im driving sleeping I feel internally that same feeling of muscle weakness I've been to my primary care who refeted me to OBGYN I 've had pap smears, internal ultrasounds, biopsy they honestly didn't know what to do then to orthopedic doctors physical therapy where they were literally kneading my muscels with a rolling pin and hands and this hurts physical therapy is very painful so its been over a year I don't know where else to go those stupid Ems or something like that test nerves I don't like it's just a nice way of electrifying people so I guess I'm being sent to another OBGYN who is going to want to do another pap smear and probably another biopsy of my uterus which is painful too so.. I'm kinda getting depressed but I'm still trying to try that why I was looking this video of the hip area…if this makes any sense…

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